Sunday, April 3, 2011

English for Agriculture unit 3 UPLAND FARMING vocabulary


allow (v) - let something happen, permit something to happen
  1. Will you allow me to do this?
  2. We should allow enough time so that we can finish this work.
ash (n) - material produced when something is burned
burn (v) - to damage by fire or heat
  1. Take the rubbish out to the field and burn it.
  2. Burning of forests for agricultural land is now a serious problem.
clear (v) - to make clean, to remove everything
  1. Please clear the table. (same as Please take everything off the table.)
  2. After they burned the trees, the land was completely cleared.
emphasis (n) - the important part, the part made to stand out
emphasize (v) - to make something look important, to make one part stand out
  1. I must emphasize that this is very important.
  2. He does not think this is important. He wants a different emphasis.
especially (adv.) -  very, in particular
  1. Many people, especially those in Asia, depend on rice.
  2. My son likes all food, but he especially likes pizza.
exhausted (adj.) - very tired, no energy left, used up
exhaust (v) - to use up completely
exhaustion (n)

  1. After the 10 km race, all the runners were exhausted.
  2. We have tried everything  (same as We have exhausted all the possibilities.)
common (adj.) - found in many places, not rare, easy to find
commonly (adv.)

  1. These plants are very common in my country.
  2. These varieties are commonly found all over Asia.
fertilizer (n) - material used to improve soil fertility
forest (n) - large area of trees
indigenous (adj.) - from a particular country or region
  1. These plants are indigenous to this region.
  2. The "Aka" people are indigenous to northern Thailand.
local (adj.) - in a particular place, similar to 'indigenous'
locality (n) - place
localized (adj. - made local

  1. The local people are very friendly. (i.e. the people from that area).
  2. Most farmers in the north use local varieties. (i.e. varieties from the north).
majority (n) - most
  1. In most countries, the majority of people can read and write (i.e. most people).
  2. We have completed the majority of the work. (i.e. most of the work).
recover (v) - to improve after some problem, e.g. disease, accidents, etc.
recovery (n)
  1. After the accident, he spent 6 weeks recovering in hospital.
  2. I am sorry to say that your friend is very sick. I don't think he will recover.
release (v) - let go, send out, make free
  1. After 5 years, the prisoner was released from jail.
  2. I'm sorry, but I cannot give you that information. I cannot release it to anybody.
several (adj.) - many
  1. In some countries, a man can have several wives.
  2. I have written to him several times, but he never replies.
store (v) - to keep in one place
store (n) - place where things are kept

  1. You can store your things in the small room next to the bedroom.
  2. Our rice store can hold 400 sacks of rice.
structure (n) - building, the way something is built
  1. The bridge fell down because the structure was not strong enough.
  2. Scientists study the structure of plants.
threaten (v) - make dangerous for the future
threat (n) - a future danger

  1. Look at the black sky over there! I think it is threatening to rain.
  2. There are many threats to world peace.
tropical (adj.) - of hot, wet regions located in the tropics
tropics (n) - region between 23o 27’ north and 23o 27’ south

  1. These plants grow well in tropical climates.
  2. These plants grow well in the tropics.
vegetation (n) - plants, leaves, flowers, trees, bushes, etc.


characteristic (n) - a feature of a plant or animal transmitted from generation to generation. Sometimes also called 'character'.
characteristic (adj.) 
  1. This variety has many good characteristics.
fallow (adj.) - land which is not used, usually for a season, during which it is often plowed to kill weeds.
  1. We will not use that land next season. We will leave it fallow.
upland farming (n) - farming in high areas. In rice cultivation, often used to mean slash-and-burn cultivation, or growing rice in fields with no bunds.
nutrient (n) - substance providing nourishment, especially for plants or animals
  1. That soil is rich in nutrients.      

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