Friday, April 8, 2011

English for Agriculture unit 4 STAPLE CROPS vocabulary

balanced (adj.) - in equal amounts, in correct amounts
balance (v) - to keep steady, to keep safe
balance (n) - equal weight

  1. We should preserve the balance of nature.
  2. This newspaper gives us a balanced account of the news.
contribute (v) - to give a part of the whole
contribution (n)

  1. Carbon dioxide contributes to global warming.
  2. Bill Gates gave a large contribution of $3 billion to help computer education.
creature (n) - animal, including people, birds, fish, insects, etc.
decline (v) - to reduce, to fall, to decrease

  1. In some countries, the birth rate is now declining.
  2. There has been a decline in the number of people using the library.
diet (n) - the food we usually eat
diet (v) - to eat special food for health reasons

  1. Many Europeans do not eat a healthy diet.
  2. Some animals live on a diet of leaves.
disaster (n) - very serious accident affecting many people
disastrous (adj.)

  1. The effects of global warming could be disastrous.
  2. Bangladesh suffers many natural disasters each year.
drought (n) - situation of no rain for a long time
  1. Drought is one kind of natural disaster.
  2. Many areas are affected by drought.
edible (adj.) - can be eaten, good enough to eat
  1. Are these mushrooms edible?
  2. Not all plants are edible.
enable (v) - make possible
  1. The new equipment will enable us to improve our work.
  2. Modern transport enables us to travel very quickly.
humanity (n) - all the people in the world
  1. This is a problem for humanity (i.e. all people)
  2. Humanity has produced many varied societies.
intake (n) - consumption, what is taken in
  1. You should reduce your intake of alcohol!
  2. In some areas, school intake is declining. (i.e. fewer children are going to school)
meet (v) - supply enough
  1. This work is not good enough! It does not meet my   requirements.
  2. We should have enough food to meet our daily needs.
nutritional (adj.) -  high in nutrients
nutrition (n) - process of giving nutrients
nutrients (n) - substances or food which allow plants and animals to live

  1. Plants get their nutrients from the soil.
  2. This food is not very good. It is not very nutritional.
  3. Good nutrition is essential for good health.
per capita (adj.) - per person, for one person
  1. In some countries, per capita income is declining.
  2. Per capita consumption of food increases in most years.
regularly (adv.) - happening at times which are the same distance apart
regular (adj.) - always the same
  1. I am a regular customer of that shop.
  2. You should practice your English regularly.
risen (v) -(rise-rose-risen), to come up
rise (n) - an increase

  1. The sun rises in the east.
  2. The number of accidents has risen recently.
significantly (adv.) - a lot, substantially, importantly
significant (adj.) - large, substantial, important

  1. There has been a significant improvement recently.
  2. Incomes have risen significantly. (i.e. risen a lot)
slightly (adv.)
slight (adj.) - a little

  1. There has only been a slight improvement. (i.e. a little improvement)
  2. These ones are slightly better than those ones.
source (n) - place where something comes from
  1. The source of the Mekong River is in Tibet.
  2. What was the source of this information? (i.e. Where did it come from?)
stable (adj.) - staying the same, not going up or down
stability (n)
stabilize (v)

  1. Incomes have not increased or decreased this year – they have remained stable.
  2. The doctors said his condition has now stabilized.
typically (adv.) - usually, most commonly
typical (adj.) - usual, common

  1. He is a typical man – always talking about sports!
  2. He greeted me with typical Asian friendliness.
well-adapted (adj.) - changed to become comfortable or suitable
  1. He found living in a foreign country difficult at first, but he is well-adapted now.
  2. Most animals are well-adapted to their environment.
wealthy (adj.) - rich, having a lot of money or resources
wealth (n)

  1. When he was young, he was very poor, but he became wealthy in later life.
  2. The wealth of many poor countries is in their natural resources.
widely (adv.) - happening over a large area
wide (adj.)

  1. These varieties are widely used in our country.
  2. Technical words are not widely understood.


staple (n) - the main crop produced or consumed in a country
  1. Rice is the staple food in most Asian countries.
wheat (Triticum sativum) - cereal grass with spikes filled with seeds. The seeds are used to make flour (for bread), cereals, etc.  Next to rice, it is the world's most widely used grain.
maize (Zea mays) - the native corn plant of America, cultivated for its food, producing yellow ears.
corn - any plant producing edible grains but in America meaning 'maize' and in England meaning 'wheat'
millet (Panicum miliaceum) - cereal grass. Its small grains are used for food in Europe and Asia. Also used for hay iin the United States and Europe.
sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) - type of grass known by the general name 'millet'.  The grasses are tall with edible stems and are found in the warmer parts of Europe, Asia and America.
roots - the parts of plants which keep them in the soil and absorb water and nutrients from the soil
tuber - short, thick part of an underground stem which stores food and produces buds from which new plants will grow
cassava (Manihot utillssima) - tropical plant producing large thick roots used in making tapioca and bread. Also called 'manioc'.
taro (Colocasia esculents) - tropical plant of the arum family, cultivated for its starchy, edible tuberous root.
tolerant of  - able to exist in difficult conditions without damage
  1. These plants are tolerant of cold weather. (same asThese plants are not damaged by cold weather.)
yam (Dioscorea alata) - often referred to as 'sweet potato'. Grows in tropical climates and is a valuable food source.

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