Tuesday, March 22, 2011

English for Agriculture: unit 2 lowland cultivation vocabulary


century (n) - 100 years
centuries (plural) - hundreds of years

  1. The 19th Century saw a large increase in heavy industries.
  2. Agriculture has been developed and improved over many centuries.
disadvantage (n) - problem (opposite of advantage)
  1. If your children do not learn English while they are young, they will be at a disadvantage in later life.
  2. This technique has both advantages and disadvantages.
fertile (adj.) - able to produce (especially for soil)
fertility (n)

  1. Soils in that region are especially fertile.
  2. We can improve the fertility of soil.
finally (adv.)
final (adj.) - at the end

  1. It took a long time but we finally finished all the work.
  2. It will be some time before we get the final results.
flood (n) - a lot of water where there is usually no water
flood (v)

  1. Most of the region was flooded for several days.
  2. Floods damaged crops in many areas.
frogs (n) - type of animal that lives in water and on land, has very long legs for jumping and no tail
get rid of (v) - take out, remove something we don't want
  1. There are too many papers here. Can you get rid of some of them?
  2. I have had this cold for weeks. I just can't seem to get rid of it.
grow (v) - to become bigger (grow-grew-grown)
growth (n)

  1. My son grew 10 cm. last year.
  2. These plants will not grow in hot climates.
harvest (v) - cutting and gathering of food crops
harvest (n)

  1. The harvest was late this year.
  2. These crops are easy to harvest.
hold (v) - to take and keep something (hold-held-held)
  1. This bottle can hold 1 ½ liters.
  2. How much information can this disk hold?
level (v) - to make something flat
level (n)  - flat area
level (adj.) - having a flat surface

  1. This land will be difficult to level.
  2. The car park has five levels.
  3. To play our game, we will need to find a level piece of ground.
paddy (n) - rice field; unmilled rice
paddies (plural)

plow (v) - to turn over soil with a plow
plow (n) - farm tool used for plowing
note: British English – plough
  1. Most of the fields are plowed in the wet season.
  2. Farmers have used plows for thousand of years.
relatively (adv.) - comparatively, quite
relative (adj.) - compared to

  1. The rooms are relatively large.( same as   The rooms are quite large.)
  2. This is relatively easy. (same as This is not too difficult.)
seep (v) - when water moves slowly through something
  1. If bunds are not built carefully, water may seep out of the rice field.
  2. Our roof was damaged last year. Now when it rains, some water seeps through.
shellfish (n) - animals with a shell that live in water
snails (n)  - small, slow-moving animal with a shell
tend to (adv.) - usually happens
  1. He is not a good worker. He tends to be lazy.
  2. The rainy season tends to last for 4 or 5 months.
traditional (adj.)
tradition (n) - beliefs or systems passed from parents to children
traditionally (adv.)

  1. These are the traditional clothes worn by women in my country.
  2. This is a very old tradition which people have carried out for centuries.
  3. English people traditionally eat meat with two vegetables.
vary (v) - to change, to be different
varied (adj.) - different
variety (n) - different types
variable (adj.) - often changing

  1. Traditions vary from country to country.
  2. We should eat a varied diet.
  3. We need to use a variety of techniques.
  4. Weather conditions in my country are variable.
vital (adj.) - very important
vitally (adv.)


  1. It is vital that you understand this! (same as It is very important that you understand this.)
  2. This is vitally important! (same as This is very, very important.)
weed (n) - plant which we do not want
weed (v) - to take out weeds


  1. These fields need to be weeded at least two times during the growing season.
  2. Some farmers do not believe that weeds are a problem.
yield (v) - produce, give a result
yield (n) - production, the result
  1. These varieties tend to yield well.
  1. Rice yields in many countries are still too low.

bunds (n) - embankments between fields, also called levees and dikes
puddle (v) - to make wet soil very soft before planting crops
transplant (v) - to take plant from onelocation and put it in soil somewhere else
transplanted (adj)
transplantation (n)


  1. The rice in that area was transplanted last week.
seedlings (n) - a young plant grown from seed as distinct from one grown by other methods
varieties (n) - groups of animals or plants within a species or sub-species.   Sometimes also called breed, race or strain.
varietal (adj)
  1. Scientists are always working to develop new varieties of plants and animals.
  2. Varietal improvement is an important area of crop research. 

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