Saturday, May 28, 2011

English for Agriculture unit 6 POLYCULTURE GRAMMAR

 Relative Pronouns
Look at the following sentences:
Polyculture is an agricultural system.
In this system, two or more useful plants are grown on the same land.

Please note that:
  • We don't want to repeat 'agricultural system' and thus we substitute the relative pronoun which to combine the two sentences into one, as shown below:
Polyculture is an agricultural system in which two or more useful plants are grown on the same land.

The relative pronouns and its use:
that (used for things)
which (used for things)
who (used for people)
whom (used for people)
whose (usually used for people - shows possession)
where (used for places)

  • In speaking, 'that ' can be used for people, but not in formal, written English.

1. where (used for places)
Look at these sentences:
Polyculture is the dominant farming systems in many areas.
In these areas, the degree of mechanization is low.

  • Because we don't want to repeat 'areas', we substitute the relative pronoun where and combine the two sentences into one sentence with 2 phrases (i.e. a compound sentence).   The sentences could be wriiten as follows:
Polyculture is the dominant farming system in many countries where the degreee of mechanization remains low.
2. that (used for things)
Look at these  sentences:
These are seeds.
I bought them yesterday.

Combining the sentences using the relative pronoun that, you might come up with the following sentence:
These are seeds that I bought them yesterday.
Please note that:
  • This is incorrect.  We don't need the pronoun them.
  • Using a relative pronoun helps us to avoid repeating a noun phrase, or using a pronoun.   In this case, using the pronoun them.
The correct sentence is
These are the seeds that I bought yesterday.
Please note that:
  • We added the before the word seed.
  • With these types of sentences we need to use the


1. The book              she wrote was a best-seller.   
2. The book              inspired many students was written many years ago
3. The teacher          I was talking about now lives in Canada.--that
4. The teacher             inspired many students was well-known.
5. Ms Tate's publications,              have inspired many, are all on my bookshelves.  
6. The book                    many readers have learnt a lot from was written by that teacher.  
7. The teacher          many students were inspired by taught English literature.
8. The teacher                     every student looked up to retired 10 years ago.
9. The teacher             now lives in Canada was respected by many of her students.
10. The book             was written by her is still talked about.
11. The teacher                everybody respected remains single all her life.
12. The book               she wrote is used as a textbook in many literature courses.
13. The book              many courses use is published in only paperback editions.
14. The book               everybody is talking about does not cost much.
15. The teacher                       every student loved is still writing to her students.
16. Ms Tate,                 was trained in literature, has taught literature all her life.
17. The teacher                to  many students owe their success has taught in many countries.
18. The teaching to                many students owe their technique is captured in this book.
19. Ms Tate's letters,                her students are still inspired by, show how much she still cares for her students.
20. Ms Tate,                  many past students are still writing to, replies to all the letter.
21. Ms Tate's letters,                her students all treasure, contain words of wisdom.
22. Ms Tate,                      to  many of her students are writing, is living happily and peacefully in Canada.

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